[ALT] Tower of the Templars
The western wall of the Tower of the Templars and its two entrances, looking northeast.

The Fatimid, Crusader, Ayyubid, and Mameluke Periods (969-1516 CE)

In 969 CE, the Holy Land was conquered by the Caliph al-Mu'izz Ma'ad (969-975 CE), the founder of the Fatimid dynasty.

In 1099 CE, the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem, and the city became the capital of their independent Kingdom of Jerusalem. Jerusalem underwent a period of intensive construction, primarily of religious institutions.

The armies of Saladin al-Ayyubid (1174-1193 CE) defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin in 1187 CE, conquered Jerusalem, and brought the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem to an end.

In 1219 CE, the city was again significantly altered when the Ayyubid Caliph el-Malik el-Mu'azzam Isa (1198-1227 CE), apprehensive in the face of Crusader threat, adopted a scorched-earth policy and destroyed the walls of Jerusalem.

The Mameluke period began in Egypt, with the fall of the Ayyubid dynasty in 1250 CE. Jerusalem remained unfortified throughout Mameluke rule. Most of the remaining Christian residents of the city were expelled, and the population again became mostly Moslem.

1. The Fortification in the South of the City and the Double Gate.

The city walls were destroyed in the earthquake of 1033 CE and their renovation continued for 30 years (1034-1064 CE). A new southern line of fortifications was established and a tower was built to protect the Double Gate entrance.

2. The Gate of the Tannery

In the Crusader period, the cattle market was located near the Western Wall, with the slaughter house and tannery workshops next to it. Nearby, in the southern city wall, an entrance tower and gate were found.

3. The Tower of the Templars

During the Crusader period, the Templars expanded the Fatimid entrance tower, in front of the Double Gate, and converted it into a massive structure.